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FC 403, Standard for Fire Sprinkler Systems, November 1994

8. Water Supplies (See Appendix A)

8.1 Connections to Waterworks Systems
  1. When a municipal waterworks system is adequate with respect to volume, pressure and reliability, the water supply to the sprinkler system shall be provided with one or more connections to the waterworks system.

  2.  
  3. When a municipal waterworks system serves a building classified as a high building in accordance with the NBC, the water supply to the sprinkler system shall be provided with two or more connections to the waterworks system.

  4.  
  5. When a waterworks system is not available or is not adequate to meet the water supply requirements, the water supply shall consist of fire pumps and reservoirs, pressure tanks, gravity tanks or combinations thereof as required by the FC.

  6.  
  7. Water supply mains shall not be installed under or through a building unless specifically approved by the FC.

  8.  
  9. Where water supply mains for fire service pass through a building, the main shall be provided with a water flow detector and alarm. Control valves shall be provided where the main enters the building.

  10.  
  11. The length of water supply connection to the sprinkler system underneath or through a building shall be as short as possible to minimize the risk of damage.

  12.  
  13. A meter shall not be installed in water supply connections unless required by local by-laws. In such cases, it shall be a listed fire service type.

  14.  
  15. The number and size of water connections required shall be as shown in Table 8.1 (a).

  16. TABLE 8.1(a)

    Size and Number of Water Supply Connections (See Appendix)
    Gross Floor Area m 2 No. of Connections Size of Connections mm
    < 12,000  1 See Table 8.1(b)
    12,000 to 24,000 2 200
    > 24,000 2 plus 1 loop 200

     

  17. The maximum number of sprinkler system valves, total area and fire hydrants supplied from a single water connection shall not exceed that shown in Table 8.1 (b)

  18. TABLE 8.1 (b)

    Number of Sprinkler System Valves and Fire Hydrants
    Size of Single Connection mm Scheduled System Designed Systemm Fire Hydrants
    100 Not permitted 1 - 100 mm None
    150 1 - 150 mm or 2 - 100 mm 2 - 150 mm None
    200 1 - 150 mm & 2 - 200 mm Any size or number of valves, up to 12 000 m2 gross floor area One

     
  19. Domestic connections to sprinkler system water supplies, shall be made from the underground piping upstream of the sprinkler system check valve outside the building except as permitted in (k) (See Appendix).

  20.  
  21. Domestic connections to sprinkler system water supplies may be made at the point of entry within the building provided: 
    1. it does not conflict with local bylaws, 
    2. it is installed on the supply side of the sprinkler system check valve, 
    3. the piping is properly insulated against sweating in the vicinity of the point of connection, 
    4. the size of the domestic connection is not greater than 25 mm from a 150 mm connection or 50 mm from a 200 mm connection (See Appendix), and 
    5. control valves are installed on the domestic connections and the sprinkler system connections to allow either the domestic water or the fire protection water to be shut off independently. 
8.2 Connections to Standpipe and Hose Systems
  1. When a water supply serving both a complete sprinkler system and a standpipe and hose system, it shall be of sufficient capacity to meet the greater of that required for the sprinkler system (including hose stream allowances) or the standpipe and hose system.

  2.  
  3. When a water supply serving both a partial sprinkler system and a standpipe and hose system, it shall be of sufficient capacity to meet the combined requirements of both systems.

  4.  
  5. Partial sprinkler systems consisting of 9 or less sprinklers may be supplied from the standpipe and hose system, where available, and controlled by a valve in an accessible location. Where a standpipe system is not available, the FC may permit a connection to the domestic water supply, if of sufficient capacity. 
8.3 Reservoirs
  1. The reservoir shall be of sufficient volume to meet the water supply requirements for the sprinkler systems and inside and outside hose allowances.

  2.  
  3. The reservoir shall be subdivided into 2 compartments of equal capacity with fire pumps arranged to take suction from both compartments.

  4.  
  5. Where the reservoir supplies water for other than the fire protection systems, it shall be designed so that the required volume of water for the fire protection systems is reserved at all times. 
8.4 Pressure Tanks
  1. Except as permitted in (b) and subject to the approval by the FC, at least 2 pressure tanks of equivalent capacity shall be provided as the water supply to a sprinkler system, where: 
    1. there is no adequate municipal water services, and 
    2. normally it would be anticipated that a limited number of sprinklers would operate and control a fire. 

     
  2. A single pressure tank may be provided, where an alternative water supply is available or subject to the approval by the FC.

  3.  
  4. The amount of available water from pressure tanks shall be sufficient to supply the number of sprinklers that would be anticipated to operate but not less than 25 000 L, except as permitted in (d).

  5.  
  6. Pressure tanks of smaller capacity than those stipulated in (c) may be permitted in the case of installations involving less than 100 sprinklers and subject to the approval by the FC.

  7.  
  8. Pressure tanks shall be dedicated to supply sprinkler systems.

  9.  
  10. Pressure tanks shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA Standard No. 22, "Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection". 
8.5 Gravity Tanks
  1. Gravity tanks shall be designed, installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 22, "Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection".

  2.  
  3. Where a gravity tank constitutes the sole or primary water supply, it shall have a capacity to meet the designed fire flow (including sprinkler, inside & outside hose allowance) for at least 1 h. 
8.6 Fire Pumps
  1. When fire pumps constitute the sole or primary water supply for a sprinkler system, at least 2 fire pumps shall be installed, each of which shall be capable of supplying the water supply requirements, based upon 120 per cent of its rated capacity.

  2.  
  3. Except as permitted in (c), at least one fire pump shall be driven by an internal combustion engine.

  4.  
  5. When there is an approved emergency power supply capable of operating either pump, both pumps may be electrically driven and both pumps shall have connections to the emergency power supply.

  6.  
  7. Fire pumps shall be arranged to start automatically in the event of the operation of the sprinkler system or the lowering of the water pressure below a predetermined level in the sprinkler system and remain in operation until manually shut down, except as permitted in (e) and (f).

  8.  
  9. Fire pumps may be arranged to shut down automatically by a low water level detection device subject to the approval of the FC.

  10.  
  11. In remote locations, where there may not be qualified staff on duty to operate the fire pumps, the fire pumps may be arranged to shut down automatically as per NFPA 20, "Standard for the Installation of Centrifugal Fire Pumps". The specific approval of the FC shall be obtained in all such cases.

  12.  
  13. Pumps required to maintain operating pressures on water supply systems shall be connected to an approved emergency power supply to prevent unnecessary operations of the fire pumps.

  14.  
  15. Fire pumps shall be electrically interconnected with the fire alarm system such that their operation is indicated at the control unit or central alarm and control facility.

  16.  
  17. Fire pumps shall be provided with means to check operation under rated flow and overload conditions and, in the case of automatic starting fire pumps, means to simulate automatic starting.

  18.  
  19. Fire pump and controllers shall be listed or of a type approved for fire service use (See Appendix).

  20.  
  21. Fire pumps and controllers shall be designed and installed in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 20, "Standard for the Installation of Centrifugal Fire Pumps". 
8.7 Booster Pumps
  1. When a municipal water works system is of sufficient volume but of insufficient pressure to meet the requirements of a sprinkler system, 2 booster pumps shall be provided, each of which shall be of sufficient capacity to meet the water supply requirements of the sprinkler system, except as permitted in (b).

  2.  
  3. When the municipal waterworks system supplies both a sprinkler system and a standpipe and hose system, a single booster pump shall be permitted when: 
    1. the municipal water supply is of sufficient capacity to meet the sprinkler system flow requirements over the entire area of application in the case of a hydraulically designed system, or 
    2. the municipal water supply is of sufficient capacity to meet 50 per cent of the sprinkler system flow requirements at the corresponding residual pressures, in the case of a pipe schedule system. 

     
  4. A single booster pump shall be either driven by an internal combustion engine or by an electric motor connected to an emergency power supply.

  5.  
  6. When 2 booster pumps are required, at least one pump shall be driven by an internal combustion engine except as provided in (e).

  7.  
  8. When there is an approved emergency power supply capable of operating either pump, both booster pumps may be electrically driven and both pumps shall have connections to the emergency power supply.

  9.  
  10. Booster pumps shall be arranged to start automatically in the event of the operation of the sprinkler system or the lowering of water pressure below a predetermined level in the sprinkler system and remain in operation until manually shut down, except as permitted in (g).

  11.  
  12. In remote locations, where there may not be qualified staff on duty to operate the booster pumps, the booster pumps may be arranged to shut down automatically as per NFPA 20, "Standard for the Installation of Centrifugal Fire Pumps". The specific approval of the FC shall be obtained In all such cases.

  13.  
  14. Booster pumps may be arranged to shut down automatically, when water flow is not detected in the water supply main subject to the approval of the FC.

  15.  
  16. Automatic jockey pumps shall be provided when there are fluctuations in municipal water service pressures, to prevent unnecessary operations of booster pumps.

  17.  
  18. Booster pumps shall be electrically interconnected with the fire alarm system such that their operation is indicated at the control panel or central alarm and control facility.

  19.  
  20. Booster pumps shall not be permitted, when the residual pressure on the municipal system would be reduced to less than 135 kPa with the pumps operating at maximum capacity. In such cases the water supply shall consist of the municipal waterworks system in combination with a water supply as stipulated in 8.1(c).

  21.  
  22. Booster pumps shall be provided with means to check operation under rated flow and overload conditions and means to simulate automatic starting.

  23.  
  24. Booster pumps and controllers, shall be listed, designed and installed in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 20, "Standard for the Installation of Centrifugal Fire Pumps". 
8.8 Fire Department Pumper Connections
  1. Sprinkler systems shall be provided with at least 1 fire department connection, except as required in (b) or as permitted in (d).

  2.  
  3. Where 2 or more water supply connections are required, the number of fire department connections shall correspond with the required number of water supply connections.

  4.  
  5. Fire department connections shall be so located that the distance from a fire department connection to a hydrant does not exceed 45 m.

  6.  
  7. In areas where there is no organized fire department, a fire department connection may not be required, subject to the approval by the FC.

  8.  
  9. Fire department connections shall be located so as to permit ready connection to fire department pumper vehicles. Clear access to the fire department connections shall be maintained at all times.

  10.  
  11. Where there is a possibility that access to the fire department connection may be obstructed by vehicles or other equipment, fire department lanes shall be designated which shall be kept free of all other vehicles and equipment at all times. 
 
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