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Glass &Windows Selection


Piping is used to convey fluids (anything that can flow: liquids, gases and/or solids) from one location to another.Industrial process piping (and accompanying in-line components) can be manufactured from wood, glass, steel, aluminum, plastic and concrete. The in-line components typically sense and control pressure, flowrate and temperature of the transmitted fluid, and usually are included when one discusses the concept of piping design. Process piping is not what you see under your sink.


"Plumbing" is the form of piping that most non-technical people are familiar with, as it constitutes the form of transportation that is used to provide liquids (water) and gases (natural gas used for heating and cooking, for example) to their homes. Piping also removes waste from the household in the form of drainage

Pipes can be manufactured from steel, aluminum, cupper,plastic and concrete.

Steel Pipe

Steel pipe is manufactured by several processes. Seamless pipe, made by piercing or extruding, has no longitudinal seam. Other manufacturing methods roll a strip or sheet of steel (skelp) into a cylinder and weld a longitudinal seam. A continuous-weld (CW) furnace butt-welding process forces and joins the edges together at high temperature. An electric current welds the seam in electric resistance welded (ERW) pipe. ASTM Standards A106 and A53 specify steel pipe. Both standards specify A and B grades. The A grade has a lower tensile strength and is not widely used.

The ASME pressure piping codes require that a longitudinal joint efficiency factor E (Table 1) be applied to each type of seam when calculating the allowable stress. ASME Standard B36.10M specifies the dimensional standard for steel pipe. Through 12 in. diameter, nominal pipe sizes (NPS) are used, which do not match the internal or external diameters. For pipe 14 in. and larger, the size corresponds to the outside diameter.

Steel pipe is manufactured with wall thicknesses identified by schedule or weight class. Although schedule numbers and weight class designations are related, they are not constant for all pipe sizes. Standard weight (STD) and Schedule 40 pipe have the same wall

Copper Tube

Because of their inherent resistance to corrosion and ease of installation, copper and copper alloys are often used in heating, air conditioning, refrigeration, and water supply installations. There are two principal classes of copper tube. ASTM Standard B88 includes Types K, L, M, and DWV for water and drain service. ASTM Standard B280 specifies air-conditioning and refrigeration (ACR) tube for refrigeration service.

Types K, L, M, and DWV designate descending wall thicknesses for copper tube. All types have the same outside diameter for corresponding sizes. Table 3 lists properties of ASTM B88 copper tube. In the plumbing industry, tube of nominal size approximates the
inside diameter. The heating and refrigeration trades specify copper tube by the outside diameter (OD). ACR tubing has a different set of wall thicknesses. Types K, L, and M tube may be hard drawn or annealed (soft) temper.

Copper tubing is joined with soldered or brazed, wrought or cast copper capillary socket-end fittings. Table 4 lists pressure-temperature ratings of soldered and brazed joints. Small copper tube is also joined by flare or compression fittings.

Hard-drawn tubing has a higher allowable stress than annealed tubing, but if hard tubing is joined by soldering or brazing, the annealed allowable stress should be used.

Brass pipe and copper pipe are also made in steel pipe thicknesses for threading. High cost has eliminated these materials from the market, except for special applications.

The heating and air-conditioning industry generally uses Types L and M tubing, which have higher internal working pressure ratings than the solder joints used at fittings. Type K may be used with brazed joints for higher pressure-temperature requirements .

Ductile Iron and Cast Iron

Cast-iron soil pipe comes in XH or service weight. It is not used under pressure because the pipe is not suitable and the joints are not restrained. Cast-iron pipe and fittings typically have bell and spigot ends for lead and oakum joints or elastomer push-on joints. Cast iron pipe and fittings are also furnished with no-hub ends for joining with no-hub clamps. Local plumbing codes specify permitted materials and joints.

Ductile iron has now replaced cast iron for pressure pipe. Ductile iron is stronger, less brittle, and similar to cast iron in corrosion resistance. It is commonly used for buried pressure water mains or in other locations where internal or external corrosion is a problem. Joints are made with flanged fittings, mechanical joint (MJ) fittings, or elastomer gaskets for bell and spigot ends. Bell and spigot and MJ joints are not self-restrained. Restrained MJ systems are available. Ductile-iron pipe is made in seven thickness classes for different service conditions. AWWA Standard C150/A2l.50, Thickness Design of Ductile-Iron Pipe, covers the proper selection of pipe classes.

Pipe Pressure Loss
Corrosion of Piping Systems
Pipe Fittings Equivalent Length (m or ft)



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