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EXIT 89

Computer Models For Fire and Smoke
  • Model Name: EXIT89
    Version: Version 1.01
    Classification: Evacuation Model
    Very Short Description: An evacuation model designed to handle the evacuation of
    a large population of individuals from a high-rise building.

    Modeler(s), Organization(s): Rita F. Fahy, National Fire Protection Association

    User’s Guide:
    User's Manual, EXIT89 v 1.01, An Evacuation Model for
    High-Rise Buildings

    Technical References:
    (The most recent and complete description of the model is
    the author's dissertation, completed in May, 2000.)

    R.F. Fahy, "EXIT89 - An Evacuation Model for High-Rise
    Buildings -- Model Description and Example
    Applications," Proceedings of the Fourth International
    Symposium, T. Kashiwagi, Editor, International Association
    for Fire Safety Science, 1994, pp. 657-668.
    R.F. Fahy, "EXIT89 - An Evacuation Model for High-Rise
    Buildings," Proceedings - Interflam '93, Interscience
    Communications Ltd., London, 1993, pp. 519-528.
    R.F. Fahy, "EXIT89: An Evacuation Model for High-Rise
    Buildings," Proceedings of the Third International
    Symposium, G. Cox and B. Langford, Editors, International
    Association for Fire Safety Science, 1991, pp. 815-823.
    R.F. Fahy, "EXIT89 - An Evacuation Model for High-Rise
    Buildings," Proceedings of the 11th Joint Panel Meeting of
    the UJNR Panel on Fire Research and Safety, NISTIR

    4449, National Institute of Standards and Technology,
    Gaithersburg MD, October 1990, pp. 306-311.
    Validation References: (The most recent verification exercises can be found in the
    author's dissertation, completed in May, 2000. The results
    will be published in the near future.)
    R.F. Fahy, "A Practical Example of an Evacuation Model
    for Complex Spaces," Proceedings of the First
    International Symposium on Human Behaviour in Fire, T.J.
    Shields, Editor, University of Ulster Fire SERT Centre,
    Carrickfergus, 1998, pp. 743-751.
    R.F. Fahy, "High-Rise Evacuation Modeling: Data and
    Applications," Proceedings of the 13th Meeting of the
    UJNR Panel on Fire Research and Safety, March 13-20,
    1996, NISTIR 6030, National Institute of Standards and
    Technology, Gaithersburg MD, June 1997, pp. 35-42.
    R.F. Fahy, "EXIT89 - High-Rise Evacuation Model -
    Recent Enhancements and Example Applications,"
    Conference Proceedings of the Seventh International
    Interflam Conference, Interscience Communications Ltd.,
    London, 1996, pp. 1001-1005.
    Availability: Planned January 2001
    Price: Not set yet
    Necessary Hardware: An IBM-compatible PC with a 386 or above CPU
    Computer Language: FORTRAN
    Size: At least 4 megabytes of physical memory should be able to
    run the model
    Contact Information: Rita F. Fahy, 617-984-7469, rfahy@nfpa.org
    Detailed Description:

    EXIT89 is an evacuation model designed to simulate the evacuation of large, high-
    occupancy buildings, such as high-rises, so that the movement of individuals can be
    tracked while they travel through the building. The model can handle some of the most
    relevant components of evacuation scenarios of interest in the evaluation of engineered
    building designs from a fire safety standpoint. These include:

  • • accounting for occupants with a range of mobilities, including disabled occupants
    and young children;
    • delay times, both those that can serve as surrogates for specific pre-movement
    activities that are set by the user at each location, and random additional delays
    that can account for the variability in start times among building occupants;
    • a choice of routing options -- the use of model-calculated shortest routes that can
    accommodate the simulation of an evacuation with a well-trained and/or staff-
    assisted occupant population, or the use of user-specified directed routes that can
    accommodate the simulation of an evacuation where occupants are more likely to
    follow familiar exits or ignore available emergency exits;
    • a choice of walking speeds that can reflect the difference between normal
    movement which might be appropriate in a drill situation and emergency
    movement which might be more appropriate for a population reacting with a
    sense of urgency;
    • contra flows which will occur during an evacuation when obstructions develop
    along travel paths; and
    • travel both up and down stairwells, which allows the extension of this model to
    buildings with occupied floors below grade level, as well as buildings where the
    path of some occupants will be up rather than down stairs.
    EXIT89 can also model the impact of smoke on an evacuation, either through user-
    defined smoke blockages or from output from a CFAST run for the same building.

    Verification examples have demonstrated the effectiveness of EXIT89 in modeling
    several evacuation exercises that were done in a variety of occupancies. Although the
    model was originally written with high-occupancy, large-population applications in mind,
    the results of these examples show that the model can be effectively applied to smaller
    buildings. While the issues of queuing and crowdedness may not be important in smaller
    buildings, the evacuation of disabled occupants, the impact of exit choice and the
    variation in pre-movement times have universal relevance and can all be modeled by
    EXIT89.

    The size of the building and its population that can be handled by EXIT89 is limited only
    by the storage capacity of the machine used. The dimensions of the storage arrays
    currently allow for up to 700 occupants in a total of 308 nodes or building spaces over
    100 time intervals. These can be changed by the user to handle larger problems. Due to
    the naming convention for nodes that the program relies on, each floor can have up to 89
    nodes and the building can have up to 10 stairways.

    The program can print out the movement of each occupant from node to node. It also
    records the location of each occupant at each time interval so that the output can be used
    as input to TENAB. TENAB will calculate the hazards to which each occupant was
    exposed using CFASToutput for combustion products and will determine when
    incapacitation or death occurs. The user can suppress this output and have the model


    only print out a summary showing floor clearing times, stairway clearing times and last
    time each exit was used and how many people used each exit.

 
 
 
 
 
   
 
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