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Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Codes, Standards
The 2000 International Mechanical Code addresses commercial kitchen hood,
exhaust ducts and exhaust equipment in Sections 506 and 507.
Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations
(NFPA 96) details the minimum fire safety requirements (preventative and
operative) related to the design, installation, operation, inspection, and maintenance of
all public and private cooking operations, excluding single-family residential usage.
These requirements include, but are not limited to, all manner of cooking equipment,
exhaust hoods, grease-removal devices, exhaust ductwork, exhaust fans, dampers, fire
extinguishing equipment, and all other auxiliary or ancillary components or systems
that are involved in the capture, containment, and control of grease-laden cooking
effluent.
2003 ASHRAE Handbook: HVAC Applications addresses kitchen ventilation in
Chapter 31. The chapter covers cooking effluent, exhaust hoods, exhaust systems, replacement (make-up) air systems, systems integration and balancing, energy considerations,
fire protection, operation and maintenance and residential kitchen ventilation.
UL 710 test protocol was established to determine minimum exhaust rates for 400 F, 600 F, and 700 F (solid fuel) surface temperature appliances. The air-flow portion of the test is a visual one made by a U.L. inspector, who observes the removal of visible cooking vapors. If, in the judgement of the inspector, the hood captures and contains this visible effluent, then the tested exhaust air flow rate passes the test. What UL 710 does not test for is the amount of heat escaping the hood at a given air flow. Listed hoods can have a fire damper to protect ductwork and maintain temperatures below 375 F or can exist without a fire damper. UL 710 does not cover evaluation of the exhaust hoods with respect to their grease extraction efficiency. UL 1046 test protocol was established for grease filters used in exhaust systems with Type I restaurant type cooking equipment. Grease filters are investigated to insure they remove grease from the effluent, drain-off of the collected grease in such a manner that it does not fall back on to the cooking surface, and limit the projection of flames into the exhaust ductwork when fire breaks out on the upstream face of the filter and after exposure to grease-laden air.
UL Subject 762, Power Roof Ventilators for Restaurant Exhaust Appliances covers roof or wall-mounted ventilators for restaurant exhaust appliances. Power ventilators for restaurant exhaust appliances covered by these requirements are intended for installation in accordance with NFPA.
Common Problems
Some of the most common conditions found in poorly designed, constructed, and operated grease exhaust systems:
• Over designed exhaust/make-up air rates, leading to energy cost/waste.
• Make-up air is not sufficient (too little or too much) to provide proper capture and containment.
• Hoods are not located properly to provide capture and containment of effluent or drafts exist from neighboring supply diffusers that impede capture.
• A short-circuit hood is used causing spillage.
• Appliances are not grouped according to effluent production and the highest effluent producing appliances are not placed in the center of the hood system.
• Duct systems are not liquid tight. The contractor
should perform a pressure test.
• Duct construction is less than the required 16- gage steel or 18-gage stainless.
• Improperly installed or sealed access panels.
• Inaccessible sections in the ductwork.
• Inadequate clearance to combustibles.
• Improperly sloped ductwork and grease drainage.
• Aluminum mesh filters are used or no filters at all.
• Under-powered fans or fans that cannot be
tipped for cleaning.
• Improperly cleaned or maintained exhaust system.
• A proper air balance and system commissioning
was never performed.
 
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