Building Control
Fire Safety
Your friend in indoor comfort & safety systems
Egress Main Page

  Ask Hvacman
Design of Exits
One-Way ,Two Way Distances
Gross vs Net Area
Exit Arrangement
Occupancy Loads
Factories,Industril Plants
Big Hotel Fires
Hotel Fire Cases
Fire Hazard Classification
Hotel Sprinkler Systems

Hotel Fire News

Ask The HvacMan
Air Handling Units
Cooling Towers
Heat Recovery

Steam Generation

Underground Buildings and Structures
A structure or portion of a structure in which the floor level is below the level of exit discharge.
Lowrise Buildings
The occupancies or Multiple and Mixed occupancies, facilities, buildings and structures having occupiable or usable floors at or up to 15 Meters from the lowest grade or lowest level of Fire Service Access into that occupancy is categorized as Lowrise Building.
Midrise Buildings
The occupancies or Multiple and Mixed occupancies, facilities, buildings and structures having occupiable or usable floors between 15 Meters to 23 Meters from the lowest grade or lowest level of Fire Service Access into that occupancy is categorized as Midrise Building.
Highrise Buildings
The occupancies or Multiple and Mixed occupancies, facilities, buildings and structures having occupiable or usable floors more than 23 Meters above the lowest grade or lowest level of Fire Service Access into that occupancy is categorized as Highrise Building. >
Multiple or Mixed Occupancies
A building, structure or facility where more than one classes of occupancies exist is noted as Multiple or Mixed occupancy. Occupancies are often mixed and intermingled with one type of occupancy located and associated with other classes of occupancies, facilities, buildings and structures without a definite Fire Barrier such as Offices located in Showrooms, Shopping Centers, Souks, industrial facilities or hospitals. Similarly assembly occupancy such as Mall or amusement park intermingled with mercantile occupancies. A storage occupancy such as warehouse can house offices, thus qualifying as Mixed Occupancy. Or industrial complex like manufacturing units can have associated Storage occupancies. A residential building having shops, showrooms and other mercantile occupancies at the ground floor without Fire Barrier are considered as multiple occupancy.

Where different parts of a building or storey of a building are designed for different types of occupancies or used for different purposes at the same time, the exit requirements of the entire building or storey of the building shall be determined on the basis of that type of occupancy or usage having the strictest exit requirements or the exit requirements for each building section shall be determined separately.
Travel distance requirement:

For a storey of mixed occupancy building consisting of high hazard production area, office and labaratuar, the exit capacity of staircases (doors )shall be based on the total of the occupancies computed separately for each usage type from Table 1. The position of the exit staircases shall be so located that the maximum permissible travel distance from any remote point to the staircase shall be based on that of the produciton area , having the stricter requirements in Table 2.
Case for mixed occupancy
Separated Multiple Occupancies
A building, structure or facility which houses multiple occupancies as in ‘Mixed Occupancies’ but with definite Fire Barriers, distinctive separate Exit Access and Exits, ‘separating’ the different classes of occupancies from each other
Business, Offices
An occupancy or the facility, building, structure used for commercial or non-commercial transaction of business, information, professional, law and governing matters such as the following.
An educational occupancy is a facility, structure or building used for educational purposes where academic activities are held for 6 hours or more such as Academies, Kindergarten Schools,
Nurseries, Institutions and Course offering establishments.
Buildings or portions of buildings used for gathering of more than 50 persons for such purpose as deliberation, worship, entertainment,
eating, drinking, amusement or awaiting transportation.
An occupancy used for the display and sale of merchandise.
Healthcare, Hospitals, Clinics
An occupancy used for purposes of medical or other treatment or care of four or more persons where such occupants are mostly incapable of self-preservation due to age, physical or mental disability, or because of security measures not under the occupants’ control.
Industrial, Workshops, Factories
An occupancy in which products are manufactured or in which processing, assembling, mixing, packaging, finishing, decorating, or repair operations are conducted.
Storage, Warehouse
An occupancy used primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, merchandise, products and vehicles. The plant nursery building is also included in this category because of the nature of storage.
An occupancy where housing for families is provided such as Villas, Group of Villas, Residential apartments with multiple dwelling units and bungalows.
An occupancy where a building or group of buildings under one management provide sleeping and lodging facilities with or without meals for transients
Ancillary usage
“Ancillary usage” refers to a room/space that serves a supporting function, and which belongs to the same purpose group as the primary building. Such rooms include sick/first aid rooms, reception lobbies/areas, waiting areas, staff lounges/staff recreation rooms, staff . Changing/locker rooms, staff training rooms, meeting rooms, workshops, laboratories (no open flame), store rooms, material/product holding areas, packing distribution areas within factories/warehouse buildings, etc..

Area of refuge

“Area of refuge” refers to an area within a building, or in an adjoining building, where evacuees can temporarily take refuge, in lieu of the requirement for adequate exit staircase provision. It shall be adequately separated from the rest of the building or adjoining building by fire-resisting construction, and connected via an external corridor or open-sided linkway. The area of refuge shall be always accessible.
Area of storey

“Area of storey” refers to the total area of that storey bounded by the inner finished surfaces of the enclosing walls. Where there is no enclosing wall on any one side, the area of storey shall be measured by the outermost edge of the floor on that side.


“Atrium” refers to a large open space within a building created by an opening, or a series of openings, in floor assemblies, thus connecting two or more storeys. An atrium is covered at the top and is used for purposes other than those associated with small shafts, e.g.,
stairs, elevators and various services. The sides of the atrium can be open to all floors, to some
floors or closed to all floors by non-rated or rated fire-resistant construction.


“Compartment” refers to a part of a building separated from all other parts of the same building by compartment walls and/or compartment floors. The roof space above the top storey of a compartment is regarded as part of that compartment.



“Dead-end” refers to a situation within a common area, such as a corridor or lift lobby
space, where exit is only possible from one end, with no possible escape from the other end.
“Exit” refers to a means of egress from the interior of the building to an external space. An exit includes any of the following, either singly or in combination: a door opening leading to external space, exit staircase, exit ramp and/or exit passageway, but not including an access stair, aisle, corridor door or corridor and an access door to a room or space.
High hazard occupancy

Any occupancy in which the contents or activities
include one or more of the following:

a. materials with auto-ignition temperature lower than 200ºC,

b. materials that produce poisonous, noxious fumes, or flammable vapour,

c. materials that cause explosions,

d. highly combustible substances and/or flammable liquids.



Web www.iklimnet.com
Book & Magazine
Interstate Bank Fire
Beverly Hills Club Fire
MGM Fire
Firehause Magazine
Special Fires
Hotel Fires
Ship Fires
Industrial Fires
Warehouse Fires

Restaurant/Nightclub Discotheque-Fires

High Rise Fires
Fires ABC
Big Building Fires
Book About Fires
Fire Stats
Fire Board

Books About Fires

Energy Save
Hotels & Legionella
Green Hotels
Hotel Design Books
Control Software