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BOWLING CENTERS

Bowling centers may also contain a bar, a restaurant, a children’s
play area, offices, locker rooms, and other types of facilities. Such
auxiliary areas are not discussed in this section, except as they may
affect design for the bowling area, which consists of alleys and a
spectator area.
Load Characteristics
Bowling alleys usually have their greatest period of use in the
evenings, but weekend daytime use may also be heavy. Thus, when
designing for the peak air-conditioning load on the building, it is
necessary to compare the day load and its high outside solar load
and off-peak people load with the evening peak people load and
zero solar load. Because bowling areas generally have little fenestration,
the solar load may not be important.
If the building contains auxiliary areas, these areas may be
included in the refrigeration, heating, and air distribution systems
for the bowling alleys, with suitable provisions for zoning the different
areas as dictated by load analysis. Alternatively, separate systems
may be established for each area having different load
operation characteristics.
Heat buildup due to lights, external transmission load, and pinsetting
machinery in front of the foul line can be reduced by
exhausting some air above the alleys or from the area containing the
pin-setting machines; however, this gain should be compared
against the cost of conditioning additional makeup air. In the calculation
of the air-conditioning load, a portion of the unoccupied alley
space load is included. Because this consists mainly of lights and
some transmission load, about 15 to 30% of this heat load may have
to be taken into account. The higher figure may apply when the roof
is poorly insulated, no exhaust air is taken from this area, or no vertical
baffle is used at the foul line. One estimate is 16 to 32 W per
square metre of vertical surface at the foul line, depending mostly on
the type and intensity of the lighting.

The proper heat gain should be applied for each person to avoid too
large a design heat load.
Design Concepts
As with other building types having high occupancy loads, heavy
smoke and odor concentration, and low sensible heat factors, all-air
systems are generally the most suitable for bowling alley areas.
Since most bowling alleys are almost windowless structures except
for such areas as entrances, exterior restaurants, and bars, it is
uneconomical to use terminal unit systems because of the small
number required. Where required, radiation in the form of baseboard
or radiant ceiling panels is generally placed at perimeter walls
and entrances.
It is not necessary to maintain normal indoor temperatures down
the length of the alleys; temperatures may be graded down to the pin
area. Unit heaters are often used at this location.
Air Pressurization. Spectator and bowling areas must be well
shielded from entrances so that no cold drafts are created in these
areas. To minimize infiltration of outdoor air into the alleys, the
exhaust and return air system should handle only 85 to 90% of the
total supply air, thus maintaining a positive pressure within the
space when outside air pressurization is taken into consideration.
Air Distribution. Packaged units without ductwork produce
uneven space temperatures, and unless they are carefully located
and installed, the units may cause objectionable drafts. Central ductwork
is recommended for all but the smallest buildings, even where
packaged refrigeration units are used. Because only the areas
behind the foul line are air conditioned, the ductwork should provide
comfortable conditions within this area.
The return and exhaust air systems should have a large number of
small registers uniformly located at high points, or pockets, to draw
off the hot, smoky, and odorous air. In some parts of the country and
for larger bowling alleys, it may be desirable to use all outdoor air
to cool during intermediate seasons.
Special Considerations
People in sports and amusement centers engage in a high degree
of physical activity, which makes them feel warmer and increases
their rate of evaporation. In these places, odor and smoke control are
important environmental considerations.
Bowling centers are characterized by the following:
• A large number of people concentrated in a relatively small area of
a very large room. A major portion of the floor area is unoccupied.
• Heavy smoking, high physical activity, and high latent heat load.
• Greatest use from about 6:00 P.M. to midnight.


The first two items make furnishing large amounts of outdoor air
mandatory to minimize odors and smoke in the atmosphere.
The area between the foul line and the bowling pins need not be
air conditioned or ventilated. Transparent or opaque vertical partitions
are sometimes installed to separate the upper portions of the
occupied and unoccupied areas so that air distribution is better contained
within the occupied area.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
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